Infants and Toddlers

Newborns have all the ocular structures necessary to see, although these are not yet fully developed. At birth, your baby can see blurred patterns of light and dark.

During the first four months, their visual horizon will expand from a few centimetres to many metres. Their vision will become clearer and colour vision will begin to develop. Their two eyes will start working together. By four months of age, an infant’s colour vision is similar to an adult’s, and by the sixth month, your baby will acquire eye movement control and develop eye-hand coordination skills.

For the first six months, an infant’s eyes can appear slightly crossed or out of alignment, but this is usually normal. But if your infant’s eyes appear significantly crossed or remain misaligned after six months of age, contact your Doctor of Optometry right away. Your child may have strabismus, commonly known as crossed eyes, a condition that needs to be treated with eyeglasses, contact lenses, prisms and/or vision therapy and, in some cases, surgery. In time, if not corrected, the ignored eye will become unable to function normally and will become largely unused. This may result in the development of lazy eye.

Lazy eye, or amblyopia, is another condition that becomes apparent within the first six months of your baby’s life. This condition describes weak vision or vision loss in one eye as a result of an uncorrected prescription. If detected or treated before eight years of age, it will often resolve completely. It’s important to treat amblyopia early – with vision therapy, eyeglasses and/or contact lenses, or patching – as treatment becomes very difficult later on. Untreated, amblyopia can lead to blindness in the affected eye.

Visual abilities play a big role in early development. Doctors of optometry recommend infants have their first eye exam between six and nine months of age. Children should have at least one eye exam between the ages of two and five, and yearly after starting school. An optometrist can complete an eye exam even if your child doesn’t know their ABCs. A doctor of optometry can use shapes, pictures and other child-friendly ways to evaluate vision and eye health.

Eye Health at Different Ages

Infants and Toddlers

Newborns have all the ocular structures necessary to see, although these are not yet fully developed. At birth, your baby can see blurred patterns of light and dark.

During the first four months, their visual horizon will expand from a few centimetres to many metres. Their vision will become clearer and colour vision will begin to develop. Their two eyes will start working together. By four months of age, an infant’s colour vision is similar to an adult’s, and by the sixth month, your baby will acquire eye movement control and develop eye-hand coordination skills.

For the first six months, an infant’s eyes can appear slightly crossed or out of alignment, but this is usually normal. But if your infant’s eyes appear significantly crossed or remain misaligned after six months of age, contact your Doctor of Optometry right away. Your child may have strabismus, commonly known as crossed eyes, a condition that needs to be treated with eyeglasses, contact lenses, prisms and/or vision therapy and, in some cases, surgery. In time, if not corrected, the ignored eye will become unable to function normally and will become largely unused. This may result in the development of lazy eye.

Lazy eye, or amblyopia, is another condition that becomes apparent within the first six months of your baby’s life. This condition describes weak vision or vision loss in one eye as a result of an uncorrected prescription. If detected or treated before eight years of age, it will often resolve completely. It’s important to treat amblyopia early – with vision therapy, eyeglasses and/or contact lenses, or patching – as treatment becomes very difficult later on. Untreated, amblyopia can lead to blindness in the affected eye.

Visual abilities play a big role in early development. Doctors of optometry recommend infants have their first eye exam between six and nine months of age. Children should have at least one eye exam between the ages of two and five, and yearly after starting school. An optometrist can complete an eye exam even if your child doesn’t know their ABCs. A doctor of optometry can use shapes, pictures and other child-friendly ways to evaluate vision and eye health.

Preschool Children (2 to 5 years)

School Age Children (6 to 19 years)

Early diagnosis and intervention is our goal

Girl with red glasses in optometry office.

Under 19 years of age - Covered by OHIP

with OHIP Eligibility*

- Individualized treatment plan
- Eyeglass & contact lens prescription**
- Retinal photography
- OCT & Visual Fields***

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* OHIP Eligibility

OHIP Eligibilityis defined by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Patients aged 20 to 64 years who have any of the following medical conditions can go to their optometrist or physician and receive an OHIP insured eye examination once every 12 months : diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract, retinal disease, visual field defects, corneal disease, active uveitis or optic pathway disease.

** Additional Follow Up

Additional follow-up and partial eye exams may be required.

*** OCT & Visual Fields

As required. There are no additional fees on our Annual Eye Exams for retinal photos or OCT. OHIP does not cover retinal photos or OCT, which we feel is important to thoroughly examine your eyes for retinal diseases and glaucoma. Early diagnosis and intervention is our goal.

OHIP Covered Conditions

In Ontario, OHIP will cover the cost of an examination once every year for patients up to 19 years of age or over 65 years of age. In addition, OHIP will cover the cost of an annual examinations for patients with certain medical conditions such as diabetes and glaucoma. Full details about OHIP eyecare coverage including a list of eligible medical conditions are available from the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care website.

Patients aged 20 to 64 years who have any of the following medical conditions can go to their optometrist or physician and receive an OHIP insured eye examination once every 12 months : diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract, retinal disease, visual field defects, corneal disease, active uveitis or optic pathway disease.

Not Covered by OHIP

Routine eye examinations provided by either an optometrist, ophthalmologist or physician, for patients aged 20 to 64, are not covered by OHIP. These individuals are responsible for payment for these examinations or have the cost covered by private insurance.

ODSP, Ontario Works and NIBH

There may be additional fees not covered by these programs.

Because of the individual programs we ask that patients contact us before scheduling an appointment. Different programs have different documentation and different coverages. Please contact us and we can help figure out what is required for your situation.

Parital Eye Examinations

Partial eye examinations follow an initial annual assessment and address an issue that has started during the year or to follow-up on an existing condition. The tests required may very depending on the reason for the visit.

The fees for a partial eye examination starts from $60 and may be covered by OHIP in some instances.

Appointments Available

Located in downtown Toronto near Richmond St. and Spadina Ave at the edge of the Fashion and Entertainment Districts. Easily accessible by transit (504, 501, 510) with nearby parking.